Fair Market Value (FMV)
Although the amount of your deduction determines if you have to file Form 8283, you also need to have information about the FMV of your contribution to complete the form.
FMV is the price a willing, knowledgeable buyer would pay a willing, knowledgeable seller when neither has to buy or sell.
You may not always be able to deduct the FMV of your contribution. Depending on the type of property donated, you may have to reduce the FMV to figure the deductible amount, as explained next.
Reductions to FMV
The amount of the reduction (if any) depends on whether the property is ordinary income property or capital gain property. Attach a statement to your tax return showing how you figured the reduction.
Ordinary income property is property that would result in ordinary income or short-term capital gain if it were sold at its FMV on the date it was contributed. Examples of ordinary income property are inventory, works of art created by the donor, and capital assets held for 1 year or less. The deduction for a gift of ordinary income property is limited to the FMV minus the amount that would be ordinary income or short-term capital gain if the property were sold.
Capital gain property is property that would result in long-term capital gain if it were sold at its FMV on the date it was contributed. For purposes of figuring your charitable contribution, it includes certain real property and depreciable property used in your trade or business, and generally held for more than 1 year. You usually may deduct gifts of capital gain property at their FMV. However, you must reduce the FMV by the amount of any appreciation if any of the following apply:
The capital gain property is contributed to certain private nonoperating foundations. This rule does not apply to qualified appreciated stock.
You choose the 50% limit instead of the special 30% limit.
The contributed property is tangible personal property that is put to an unrelated use (as defined in Publication 526) by the charity.
Qualified Conservation Contribution
If your donation qualifies as a qualified conservation contribution under section 170(h), attach a statement showing the FMV of the underlying property before and after the gift and the conservation purpose furthered by the gift. See Publication 561 for more details.