Use Schedule F (Form 1040) to report farm income and expenses. File it with Form 1040, 1040NR, 1041, 1065, or 1065-B.
Your farming activity may subject you to state and local taxes and other requirements such as business licenses and fees. Check with your state and local governments for more information.
Additional information. Pub. 225 has more information and examples to help you complete your farm tax return. It also lists important dates that apply to farmers.
Deductible conservation expenses are generally those that are paid to conserve soil and water for land used in farming, to prevent erosion of land used for farming, or for endangered species recovery. These expenses include (but aren't limited to) costs for the following.
• The treatment or movement of earth, such as leveling, grading, conditioning, terracing, contour furrowing, and the restoration of soil fertility.
• The construction, control, and protection of diversion channels, drainage ditches, irrigation ditches, earthen dams, watercourses, outlets, and ponds.
• The eradication of brush.
• The planting of windbreaks.
• The achievement of site-specific management actions recommended in recovery plans approved pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
These expenses can be deducted only if they're consistent with a conservation plan approved by the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the Department of Agriculture or a recovery plan approved pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, for the area in which your land is located. If no plan exists, the expenses must be consistent with a plan of a comparable state agency. You can't deduct the expenses if they were paid or incurred for land used in farming in a foreign country.
Don't deduct expenses you paid or incurred to drain or fill wetlands, or to prepare land for center pivot irrigation systems.
Your deduction can't exceed 25% of your gross income from farming (excluding certain gains from selling assets such as farm machinery and land). If your conservation expenses are more than the limit, the excess can be carried forward and deducted in later tax years. However, the amount deductible for any 1 year can't exceed the 25% gross income limit for that year